A History of Manned Space Missions - 1961 to 1993

 

Mission
(Country)

Craft

Launch Date

Crew

Mission Highlights

Vostok-1
(USSR)

Kedr (Cedar)

April 12, 1961

Gagarin

Cosmonaut Yuri Garagin became the first human in space.

Mercury-3
(USA)

Freedom 7

May 5, 1961

Shepard

Alan Shepard became the first American in space during a fifteen minute sub-orbital flight

Mercury-4
(USA)

Liberty Bell-7

July 21, 1961

Grissom

The second US sub-orbital flight, reaching an altitude of 126 miles

Vostok-2
(USSR)

Orel (Eagle)

August 6, 1961

Titov

Titov was the first to spend an entire day in space.

Mercury-6
(USA)

Friendship 7

February 20,1962

Glenn

The first US manned orbital flight at an orbit 100-162 miles from the Earth.

Mercury-7
(USA)

Aurora 7

May 24, 1962

Carpenter

The second US manned orbital flight which orbited the Earth three times.

Vostok-3
(USSR)

Sokol (Falcon)

August 11, 1962

Nikolayev

First four-day flight and first "group" flight with Vostok-4.

Vostok-4
(USSR)

Berkut (Golden Eagle)

August 12, 1962

Popovich

The other half of the first "group" flight. Vostok-4 came within five miles of Vostok-3.

Mercury-8
(USA)

Sigma 7

October 3, 1962

Schirra

Walter Schirra orbited the Earth six times during this 9 hour mission.

Mercury 9
(USA)

Faith 7

May 15, 1963

Cooper

Cooper pilots the longest and last Mercury mission, totalling 34 hours in space.

Vostok 5
(USSR)

Yastreb (Hawk)

June 14, 1963

Bykovsky

Bykovsky set an endurance record of 5 days in space.

Vostok 6
(USSR)

Chaika (Seagull)

June 16,1963

Tereshkova

This mission marked the first woman in space.

Voskhod 1
(USSR)

Rubin (Ruby)

October 12, 1964

Komarov
Feoktistov
Yegorov

The first space crew, with one pilot and two passengers. The capsule was so crowded that the crew did not wear spacesuits. All suffered from space sickness.

Voskhod 2
(USSR)

Almaz (Diamond)

March 18, 1965

Belyavyev
Leonov

Leonov became the first person to walk in space. They landed far from their designated spot and ended up in the Ural mountains. It took two days for the rescue team to find them.

Gemini-Titan 3
(USA)

Molly Brown

March 23, 1965

Grissom
Young

Starting the Gemini program, this spacecraft was the first to carry a computer for guidance and was powered by rocket. The manueverability of this craft led to the eventual rendezvous and docking of vehicles in space.

Gemini-Titan 4
(USA)

Gemini 4

June 3, 1965

McDivitt
White

This mission set a four-day endurance record. White made the first American spacewalk for 21 minutes.

Gemini-Titan 5
(USA)

Gemini 5

August 21, 1965

Cooper
Conrad

Cooper and Conrad set the world endurance record by spending 8 days in orbit. This proved that humans could survive in space long enough to travel to the moon and back.

Gemini-Titan 7
(USA)

Gemini 7

December 4, 1965

Borman
Lovell

This mission set yet another endurance record of 13 days and made the first American rendezvous between two manned spacecraft with Gemini 6

Gemini-Titan 6-A
(USA)

Gemini 6

December 15,1965

Schirra
Stafford

Gemini 6 rendezvoused with Gemini 7 coming within one foot of the other.

Gemini-Titan 8
(USA)

Gemini 8

March 16,1966

Armstrong
Scott

Armstrong and Scott perform the first docking in space with another space vehicle - an Agena target rocket. The mission was prematurely terminated after only 10 hours and 41 minutes due to problems with a stuck thruster.

Gemini-Titan 9-A
(USA)

Gemini 9

June 3,1966

Stafford
Cernan

Gemini 9 rendezvoused with the Augmented Target Docking Adaptor, but were unable to dock with the vehicle.

Gemini-Titan 10
(USA)

Gemini 10

July 18,1966

Young
Collins

Gemini 10 reached a record altitude of 468 miles (752km). The craft rendevoused and docked two different Agena targets and Collins performed two spacewalks.

Gemini-Titan 11
(USA)

Gemini 11

September 12, 1966

Conrad
Gordon

Gemini made the first American autopilot reentry and landing. A new record altitude was made of 850 miles (1360km). Gemini made a rendezvous and docking with a target Agena and Gordon made two spacewalks.

Gemini-Titan 12
(USA)

Gemini 12

November 11, 1966

Lovell
Aldrin

In this last Gemini mission, Aldrin made three spacewalks totaling 5.5 hours. He performed several simple tasks with tools outside the spacecraft.

Apollo-Saturn 204
(USA)

Apollo 1

January 27, 1967

Grissom
White
Chaffee

While training for a fourteen-day mission scheduled for launch in February, astronauts Grissom, White, and Chaffee were killed in a fire aboard the Apollo 1.

Soyuz 1
(USSR)

Rubin (Ruby)

April 23, 1967

Komarov

Cosmonaut Komarov launches the first Soyuz mission. The spacecraft experienced problems in maintaining its orientation. When Komarov attempted a reentry, Soyuz 1 crashed and killed him.

Apollo-Saturn 7
(USA)

Apollo 7

October 11, 1968

Schirra
Eisele
Cunningham

The Apollo spacecraft makes its first flight as the astronauts perform several tests during its 11 days in orbit. The first live television pictures from space occurs on this mission.

Soyuz 3
(USSR)

Argon

October 26,1968

Beregovoy

First manned flight of the redesigned Soyuz craft. The mission completed a rendezvous with the unmanned Soyuz 2.

Apollo-Saturn 8
(USA)

Apollo 8

December 21, 1968

Borman
Lovell
Anders

This Saturn 5 rocket sent the astronauts to the far side of the moon, a first in manned flight. They made ten orbits around the moon on this most powerful rocket ever used in manned flight.

Soyuz 4
(USSR)

Amur

January 14,1969

Shatalov

Soyuz 4 was joined by Soyuz 5 on January 15. Shatalov piloted the rendevous and docking on January 16 with Soyuz 5 and then Yeliseyev and Khrunov took a spacewalk over to Soyuz 4. The three returned to Earth together.

Soyuz 5
(USSR)

Baikal

January 15, 1969

Volynov
Yeliseyev
Khrunov

Soyuz 5 was docked by Soyuz 4. Yeliseyev and Khrunov transferred over to vSoyuz 4 and Volynov returned to earth alone.

Apollo-Saturn 9
(USA)

Apollo 9
cm: Gumdrop
lm: Spider

March 3, 1969

McDivitt
Scott
Schweickart

McDivitt and Schweickart made the first manned test of the lunar module (lm), while Scott remained aboard the command module (cm).

Apollo-Saturn 10
(USA)

Apollo 10
cm: Charlie Brown
lm: Snoopy

May 18, 1969

Stafford
Young
Cernan

This mission was a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing. The lunar module came within 10 miles of the surface of the moon and took photographs of the Apollo 11 landing site.

Apollo-Saturn 11
(USA)

Apollo 11
cm: Columbia
lm: Eagle

July 16, 1969

Armstrong
Collins
Aldrin

Apollo 11 successfully completed the first manned mission to the lunar surface. At 10:56am on July 20, Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon, joined 18 minutes by Aldrin. Armstrong and Aldrin remained on the surface for 20 hours and took a two-hour moonwalk.

Soyuz 6
(USSR)

Antei (Anteus)

October 11, 1969

Shonin
Kubasov

Soyuz 6, 7, and 8 were launched within a day of each other, putting a total of seven cosmonauts in space at the same time for a joint mission. Kubasov performed the first space welding experiment.

Soyuz 7
(USSR)

Buran (Snowstorm)

October 12, 1969

Filipchenko
Volkov
Gorbatko

Soyuz 6, 7, and 8 were launched within a day of each other, putting a total of seven cosmonauts in space at the same time for a joint mission.

Soyuz 8
(USSR)

Granit (Granite)

October 13, 1969

Shatalov
Yeliseyev

Soyuz 6, 7, and 8 were launched within a day of each other, putting a total of seven cosmonauts in space at the same time for a joint mission.

Apollo-Saturn 12
(USA)

Apollo 12
cm: Yankee Clipper
lm: Intrepid

November 14, 1969

Conrad
Gordon
Bean

Apollo 12 made the second landing on the moon. Conrad and Bean collected 31 kilograms of lunar rock and soil, and retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3 spacecraft.

Apollo-Saturn 13
(USA)

Apollo 13
cm: Odyssey
lm: Aquarius

April 11, 1970

Lovell
Swigert
Haise

The third manned lunar landing was aborted due to an explosion aboard the command module on April 13. Lovell, Swigert, and Haise used the lunar module as a lifeboat. Through the heroic work of the astronauts and ground engineers, the spacecraft and crew returned safely to Earth.

Soyuz 9
(USSR)

Sokol (Falcon)

June 1, 1970

Nikolayev
Sevastyanov

This eighteen-day flight set a new endurance record. However, the two astronauts had to be carried from the spacecraft after landing.

Apollo-Saturn 14
(USA)

Apollo 14
cm: Kitty Hawk
lm: Antares

January 31, 1971

Shepard
Roosa
Mitchell

Apollo 14 was the third successful lunar landing mission. This mission was the first to use a tool cart on the moon, for the collection of more rock and soil samples.

Soyuz 10
(USSR)

Granit (Granite)

April 23, 1971

Shatalov
Yeliseyev
Rukavishnikov

Soyuz 10 was launched four days after Salyut, the first Soviet space station. The cosmonauts docked the station, but were unable to enter.

Soyuz 11
(USSR)

Yantar (Amber)

June 6, 1971

Dobrovolsky
Volkov
Patsayev

These cosmonauts became the first crew of the Salyut 1 space station. They were in orbit for 24 days, completing experiments, observations, and other tasks. The mission ended in tragedy when all three cosmonauts were killed by a sudden cabin leak on Yantar prior to their return to Earth.

Apollo-Saturn 15
(USA)

Apollo 15
cm: Endeavour
lm: Falcon

July 26, 1971

Scott
Worden
Irwin

Scott and Irwin became the first astronauts to use the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the fourth successful lunar landing.

Apollo-Saturn 16
(USA)

Apollo 16
cm: Casper
lm: Orion

April 16, 1972

Young
Mattingly
Duke

Young and Duke visited the previously unexplored lunar highlands, using the Lunar Rover a second time.

Apollo-Saturn 17
(USA)

Apollo 17
cm: Challenger
lm: America

December 7, 1972

Cernan
Evans
Schmitt

Apollo 17 was the last lunar landing mission. Cernan and Schmitt completed three moon walks, obtained rock and soil samples, and used a lunar rover to cover more than 18 miles (30km) of territory.

Skylab SL-2
(USA)

Skylab

May 25, 1973

Conrad
Kerwin
Weitz

The first American laboratory in space, Skylab, was launched on the last Saturn 5 rocket, to be joined on May 25 by its crew: Conrad, Weitz (the first American physician-astronaut), and Kerwin. The crew made repairs to the lab which was damaged during launch. They spent 28 days in space performing experiments and observations.

Skylab SL-3
(USA)

Skylab

July 23, 1973

Bean
Garriott
Lousma

These astronauts became the second crew of Skylab. After a period of severe motion sickness, the crew settled down to a regular schedule of experiments and observations, spending 60 days in orbit.

Soyuz 12(USSR)

Urals

September 27, 1973

Lazarev
Makarov

Using a redesigned spacecraft, Soyuz 12 went through a systems check on a two-day mission. The cosmonauts of this mission became the first to wear spacesuits in flight since 1965.

Skylab SL-4
(USA)

Skylab

November 15, 1973

Carr
Gibson
Pogue

These astronauts became the final crew of Skylab, completing an 84-day mission of experiments and observations. They obtained observations of Comet Kohoutek, as well as an impressive solar flare. They returned safely on February 8, 1974. Skylab itself re-entered the Earth's atmosphere in 1979 and broke into numerous pieces which scattered over the Pacific Ocean and Australia.

Soyuz 13
(USSR)

Kavkaz (Caucasus)

December 18,1973

Klimuk
Lebedev

Soyuz 13 carried the Orion astrophysical observatory, which was never deployed to the Salyut space station. Klimuk and Lebedev observed Comet Kahoutek as did the Skylab astronauts. It was the first time that Soviet and American space travelers were in orbit simultaneously.

Soyuz 14
(USSR)

Berkut (Golden Eagle)

July 3, 1974

Popovich
Artyukhin

These two astronauts conducted the USSR's first successful space station mission, spending 14 days aboard Salyut 3.

Soyuz 15
(USSR)

Dunai (Danube)

August 26, 1974

Sarafanov
Demin

Soyuz 15 had to cut its trip to Salyut 3 for a two-week mission short when their guidance system failed. They returned to Earth safely.

Soyuz 16
(USSR)

Buran (Snowstorm)

December 2, 1974

Filipchenko
Rukavishnikov

This mission was a dress rehearsal for the Soviet-American flight scheduled for July 1975. NASA ground stations tracked Soyuz 16 after launch.

Soyuz 17
(USSR)

Zenit (Zenith)

January 11, 1975

Gubarev
Grechko

Gubarev and Grechko conducted experiments aboard Salyut 4 for 29 days.

Soyuz 18
(USSR)

Kavkaz (Caucasus)

May 24, 1975

Klimuk
Sevastyanov

Klimuk and Sevastyanov docked Salyut 4 and spent 61 days in orbit performing experiments.

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
(USA-USSR)

Apollo/Soyuz

July 15, 1975

Leonov
Kubasov
Stafford
Brand
Slayton

A joint mission to link the last Apollo spacecraft with the Soyuz 19 spacecraft. Soyuz 19 lifted off first. Seven hours later Apollo lifted off. A rendezvous and docking with the Soyuz 19 spacecraft occured on July 17, and the two crews shake hands and begin two days of activities together. The spacecrafts separated on July 19, with Soyuz returning to Earth on July 21 followed by Apollo on July 24.

Soyuz 21
(USSR)

Baikal

July 6, 1976

Volynov
Zholobov

The two cosmonauts spent 49 days in space for a mission devoted to manufacturing and military stuff. They returned three weeks early due to physical and psychological problems.

Soyuz 22
(USSR)

Yastreb (Hawk)

September 15, 1976

Bykovsky
Aksenov

Soyuz 22 made observations of the Earth's surface with the East German-built MKF-6 camera.

Soyuz 23
(USSR)

Rodon

October 14, 1976

Zudov
Rozhdestvensky

Soyuz 23 made the first Soviet splashdown when its guidance system malfunctioned during an attempted docking of Salyut 5.

Soyuz 24
(USSR)

Terek

February 7, 1977

Gorbatko
Glazkov

These two cosmonauts spent 17 days aboard Salyut 5 in a mission to collect military photos.

Soyuz 26
(USSR)

Taimyr

December 10, 1977

Romanenko
Grechko

Romanenko and Grechko set a space endurance record aboard Salyut 6, spending 96 days in space. They were visited by two teams of cosmonauts and received supplies from an unmanned Progress spacecraft. They returned to Earth aboard Soyuz 27.

Soyuz 27
(USSR)

Pamir

January 10, 1978

Dzhanibekov
Makarov

Dzhanibekow and Makarov docked Sakyut 6, swapped spacecraft with Romanenko and Grechko, and returned to Earth in Soyuz 26 after five days.

Soyuz 28
(USSR)

Zenit (Zenith)

March 2, 1978

Gubarev
Remek

Czechoslovakian Remek became the first non-American, non-Soviet in space. He and Gubarev joined the other cosmonauts aboard Salyut 6 and spent seven days doing experiments.

Soyuz 29
(USSR)

Foton (Photon)

June 15, 1978

Kovalenok
Ivanchenkov

These two cosmonauts set a new endurance record of 136 days in space as the second crew of Salyut 6. They were visited by two teams of cosmonauts and received supplies from three Progess spacecraft. They returned aboard Soyuz 31.

Soyuz 30
(USSR)

Kavkaz (Caucasus)

June 27, 1978

Klimuk
Hermaszewski

Hermaszewski became the first Polish cosmonaut in space. He and Klimuk spent a week aboard Salyut 6 performing experiments.

Soyuz 31
(USSR)

Yastreb (Hawk)

August 26, 1978

Bykovsky
Jaehn

Jaehn became the first German space traveler. He and Bykovsky spent a week aboard Salyut 6 performing experiments.

Soyuz 32
(USSR)

Proton

February 25, 1979

Lyakhov
Ryumin

Lyakhov and Ryumin set another endurance record of 175 days in space as the third crew of Salyut 6. Some of their work included observations with a KT-10 radio telescope. They returned aboard Soyuz 34, which had been launched unmanned.

Soyuz 35
(USSR)

Dnepr (Dnieper)

April 9, 1980

Popov
Ryumin

Ryumin and Popov spent six months in space as the fourth crew of Salyut 6.

Soyuz 36
(USSR)

Orion

May 26, 1980

Kubasov
Farkas

Farkas, the first Hungarian in space, and Kubasov visited Salyut 6 on their mission of 7 days.

Soyuz T-2
(USSR)

Yupiter (Jupiter)

June 5, 1980

Malyshev
Aksenov

This mission performed the first test flight of an improved Soyuz. The new guidance system failed on approach to Salyut 6, but the astronauts were able to dock at Salyut 6 and spend three days with their fellow comrades.

Soyuz 37
(USSR)

Terek

July 23, 1980

Gorbatko
Tuan

Tuan became the first Vietnamese in space as he and Gorbatko visited Salyut 6 and made a commemoration of the 1980 Moscow Summer Olympics.

Soyuz 38
(USSR)

Taimyr

September 18, 1980

Romanenko
Mendez

Mendez became the first Cuban in space as he and Romanenko visited Salyut 6 for a week.

Soyuz T-3
(USSR)

Mayak (Beacon)

November 27, 1980

Kizim
Makarov
Strekalov

During this 12-day mission, the cosmonauts made repairs to Salyut 6 in preparation for the fifth crew.

Soyuz T-4
(USSR)

Foton

March 12, 1981

Kovalenok
Savinykh

Kovalenok and Savinykh became the fifth crew of Salyut 6. Salyut 6 had well exceeded its design lifetime, but the cosmonauts spent 74 days there performing experiments and having guests (fellow cosmonauts, of course).

Soyuz 39
(USSR)

Pamir

March 22, 1981

Dzhanibekov
Gurragcha

Gurragcha became the first Mongolian in space as he and Dzhanibekov visited Salyut 6 for a 7-day mission.

STS-1
(USA)

Columbia

April 12, 1981

Young
Crippen

The first winged, reusable spacecraft, now known as Space Shuttle, to be launched.

Soyuz 40
(USSR)

Dnepr

May 14, 1981

Popov
Prunariu

The first Romanian in space, Prunariu and Soviet Popov spent seven days aboard Salyut 6.

STS-2
(USA)

Columbia

November 12, 1981

Engle
Truly

The second flight of Shuttle Columbia. Technical problems shortened the mission from five to two days.

STS-3
(USA)

Columbia

March 22, 1982

Lousma
Fullerton

The third Columbia Shuttle flight test.

Soyuz T-5
(USSR)

Elbrus

May 13, 1982

Berezovoy
Lebedev

Berezovoy and Lebedev spent an unprecedented 7 months in space aboard the new space station, Salyut 7. During their mission they deployed a scientific satellite and performed several spacewalks.

Soyuz T-6
(USSR)

Pamir

June 24, 1982

Dzhanibekov
Ivanchenkov
Chretien

Chretien became the first French and Western European to go into space aboard a Soviet vehicle. The three cosmonauts spent 7 days aboard Salyut 7.

STS-4
(USA)

Columbia

June 27, 1982

Mattingly
Hartsfield

The fourth and final Shuttle flight test carried a Department of Defense experiment and the first commercial experiment.

Soyuz T-7
(USSR)

Dnepr

August 19, 1982

Popov
Serebrov
Savitskaya

Savitskaya became the second woman in space as she and fellow cosmonauts visited Salyut 7 for a 7 day mission.

STS-5
(USA)

Columbia

November 11, 1982

Brand
Overmyer
Allen
Lenoir

First operational flight of the Space Shuttle and the first manned spacecraft to carry four crewmembers.

STS-6
(USA)

Challenger

April 4, 1983

Weitz
Karol Bobko
Musgrave
Peterson

First flight of Shuttle Challenger. The first spacewalk of the shuttle program was performed.

STS-7
(USA)

Challenger

June 18, 1983

Crippen
Hauck
Fabian
Ride
Thagard

Ride became the first American woman to make a space flight. The five-person crew that deployed three satellites.

Soyuz T-9
(USSR)

Proton

June 27, 1983

Lyakhov
Alexandrov

Lyakhov and Alexandrov spent five months aboard the Salyut 7/Kosmos 1443 complex. Salyut 7 suffered a massive fuel leak that almost disabled the station and forced the cosmonauts to make two spacewalks for repairs. They returned safely to Earth on Novermber 23.

STS-8
(USA)

Challenger

April 30, 1983

Truly
Brandenstein
Bluford
Gardner
Thornton

Bluford became the first African-American to go into space. First nighttime launch and landing in the Shuttle program.

STS-9
(USA)

Columbia, Spacelab

November 28, 1983

Young
Shaw
Garriott
Parker
Lichtenberg
Merbold

First flight of the European Space Agency's Spacelab. Scientists of the crew conducted 72 experiments.

41-B
(USA)

Challenger

February 3, 1984

Brand
Gibson
McNair
Stewart
McCandless

The first untethered spacewalk in history was made using the manned maneuvering unit (MMU).

Soyuz T-10
(USSR)

Mayak

February 8, 1984

Kizim
Solovyov
Atkov

Kizim, Solovyov, and Atkov set a new endurance record by spending eight months aboard Salyut 7. They spent most of their time doing medical research.

Soyuz T-11
(USSR)

Yupiter

April 3, 1984

Malyshev
Strekalov
Sharma

Sharma became the first astronaut from India to make a spaceflight as he and his fellow cosmonauts spent a week aboard Salyut 7.

41-C
(USA)

Challenger

April 6, 1984

Crippen
Scobee
Hart
van Hoften
Nelson

This mission accomplished the first capture, repair, and redeployment of a satellite. The astronauts also deployed the long-duration exposure facility (LDEF).

Soyuz T-12
(USSR)

Pamir

July 17, 1984

Dzhanibekov
Savitskaya
Volk

Savitskaya became the first woman to make a spacewalk during this 11-day resupply mission to Salyut 7.

41-D
(USA)

Discovery

August 30, 1984

Hartsfield
Coats
Mullane
Hawley
Resnik
Walker

First flight of the Shuttle Discovery. The Continuous Flow Electrophoresis Experiment was done and three satellites were deployed.

41-G
(USA)

Challenger

October 5, 1984

Crippen
McBride
Sullivan
Ride
Leestma
Scully-Power
Garneau

First crew of seven. The astronauts deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite. Sullivan became the first American woman to walk in space.

51-A
(USA)

Discovery

November 8, 1984

Hauck
Walker
Allen
Fisher
Gardner

Two new satellites were launched and two broken satellites were retrieved.

51-C
(USA)

Discovery

January 24, 1985

Mattingly
Shriver
Onizuka
Buchli
Payton

The first classified U.S. Department of Defense Shuttle mission.

51-D
(USA)

Discovery

April 12, 1985

Bobko
Williams
Seddon
Griggs
Hoffman
Walker
Garn

This mission deployed a communications satellite.

51-B
(USA)

Challenger, Spacelab

April 29, 1985

Overmyer
Gregory
Lind
Thagard
Thornton
Wang
van den Berg

Spacelab 3, the first life sciences and space manufacturing Spacelab mission. 14 experiments were carried out.

Soyuz T-13
(USSR)

Pamir

June 6 1985

Dzhanibekov
Savinykh

These two cosmonauts restored the dead Salyut 7 by spending 112 days performing repairs on the space station.

51-G
(USA)

Discovery

June 17, 1985

Brandenstein
Creighton
Fabian
Nagel
Lucid
Baudry
Al-Saud

The first tri-national space crew deployed three satellites. Nagel became the 100th American in space.

51-F
(USA)

Challenger, Spacelab

July 29, 1985

Fullerton
Bridges
Henize
Musgrave
England
Acton
Bartoe

Spacelab 2 carried experiments in life sciences, plasma physics, astronomy, and solar physics.

51-I
(USA)

Discovery

August 27, 1985

Engle
Covey
van Hoften
Lounge
Fisher

The astronauts deployed two satellites, then retrieved and repaired a third.

Soyuz T-14
(USSR)

Cheget

September 17, 1985

Vasyutin
Grechko
Volkov

Soyuz T-14 was the first "relief mission" in space history. They replaced Savinykh and Dzhanibekov of Soyuz T-13.

51-J
(USA)

Atlantis

October 3, 1985

Bobko
Grabe
Hilmers
Stewart
Pailes

The first flight of Shuttle Atlantis was the second classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.

61-A
(USA)

Challenger, Spacelab D1

October 30, 1985

Hartsfield
Nagel
Dunbar
Buchli
Bluford
Furrer
Messerschmid
Ockels

Spacelab D1 was controlled by the West German Federal Aerospace Research Establishment (DFVLR). It carried experiments concerning materials processing, communications, and microgravity.

61-B
(USA)

Atlantis

November 26, 1985

Shaw
O'Connor
Ross
Cleave
Spring
Walker
Neri Vela

The crew of Mission 61-B tested space construction techniques.

61-C
(USA)

Columbia

January 12, 1986

Gibson
Bolden
Nelson
Hawley
Chang-Diaz
Cenker

This mission had lots of problems and had to be shortened.

51-L
(USA)

Challenger

January 28, 1986

Scobee
Smith
Onizuka
Resnik
McNair
Jarvis
McAuliffe

All seven crew members were killed when Challenger exploded 75 seconds after launch. McAuliffe was to be the first teacher in space.

Soyuz T-15
(USSR)

Mayak

March 13, 1986

Kizim
Solovyov

The 125-day Soyuz T-15 mission was one of the most difficult and successful missions in Soviet space history. Kizim and Solovyov activated the new Mir space station and then transferred over to Salyut 7 where they performed two spacewalks. Then they flew back to the Mir space station to perform some system tests.

Soyuz TM-2
(USSR)

Taimyr

February 6, 1987

Romanenko
Laveikin

Romanenko and Laveikin made up the second resident Mir crew. Romanenko spent 326 days aboard the station while Laveikin spent 174 days there.

Soyuz TM-3
(USSR)

Vityaz (Knight)

July 22, 1987

Viktorenko
Alexandrov
Faris

Faris became the first Syrian in space as he and his fellow cosmonauts spent seven days in space. Alexandrov replaced Laveikin on the Mir station, spending 160 days in space.

Soyuz TM-4
(USSR)

Okean

December 21, 1987

Titov
Manarov
Levchenko

Titov and Manarov completed the first year-long mission when they became the third Mir crew. They performed three spacewalks, and several manufacturing and astronomical instruments.

Soyuz TM-5
(USSR)

Rodnik (Spring)

June 7, 1988

Solovyov
Savinykh
Alexandrov

The first Bulgarian in space, Alexandrov and his fellow cosmonauts performed experiments for Bulgaria.

Soyuz TM-6
(USSR)

Proton

August 29, 1988

Lyakhov
Polyakov
Mohmand

Mohmand became the first space traveler for Afghanistan as he and his fellow cosmonauts visited the Mir station for seven days. Polyakov stayed on Mir for 240 days to monitor the health of the resident crew.

STS-26
(USA)

Discovery

September 29, 1988

Hauck
Covey
Lounge
Hilmers
Nelson

The Shuttle program's return to flight after the Challenger disaster.

Soyuz TM-7
(USSR)

Donbass

November 26, 1988

Volkov
Krikalev
Chretien

The new crew for the Mir station recorded the first international spacewalk of French Chretien and Soviet Volkov. Chretien returned after 24 days while the others stayed on Mir for 150.

STS-27
(USA)

Atlantis

December 2, 1988

Gibson
Gardner
Mullane
Ross
Shepherd

The third classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.

STS-29
(USA)

Discovery

March 13, 1989

Coats
Blaha
Buchli
Springer
Bagian

This mission deployed the third tracking and data relay satellite into orbit.

STS-30
(USA)

Atlantis

May 4, 1989

Walker
Grabe
Thagard
Cleave
Lee

Deployed the radar mapping space probe Magellan, sending it on a nine-month voyage to Venus.

STS-28
(USA)

Columbia

August 13, 1989

Shaw
Richards
Leestma
Adamson
Brown

The fourth classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.

Soyuz TM-8
(USSR)

Vityaz (Knight)

September 6, 1989

Viktorenko
Serebrov

This fifth Mir crew spent 166 days in space. The crew added the Kvant 2 module to the station and also conducted the first tests of the Soviet manned manuevering unit during spacewalks.

STS-34
(USA)

Atlantis

October 18, 1989

Williams
McCulley
Lucid
Chang-Diaz
Baker

Deployed the space probe Galileo, sending it on its five-year mission to Jupiter.

STS-33
(USA)

Discovery

November 22, 1989

Gregory
Blaha
Carter
Musgrave
Thornton

The fifth Department of Defense Shuttle mission.

STS-32
(USA)

Columbia

January 9, 1990

Brandenstein
Wetherbee
Dunbar
Ivins
Low

This Shuttle mission deployed the Syncom IV-5 (Leasat) and returned the Long Duration Explosure Facility to Earth.

Soyuz TM-9
(USSR)

Rodnik

February 11, 1990

Solovyov
Balandin

Solovyov and Balandin became the sixth Mir crew as they spent over 179 days in space.

STS-36
(USA)

Atlantis

February 28, 1990

Creighton
Casper
Hilmers
Mullane
Thuot

The sixth classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.

STS-31
(USA)

Discovery

April 24, 1990

Shriver
Bolden
McCandless
Hawley
Sullivan

Deployed the Hubble Space Telescope.

Soyuz TM-10
(USSR)

Vulkan

August 1, 1990

Manakov
Strekalov

The seventh Mir crew spent over 131 days in space.

STS-41
(USA)

Discovery

October 6, 1990

Richards
Cabana
Melnick
Shepherd
Akers

Deployed the Ulysses space probe, sending it on a journey around the poles of the sun.

STS-38
(USA)

Atlantis

November 15, 1990

Covey
Culbertson
Springer
Meade
Gemar

The last classified Department of Defense Shuttle mission.

STS-35
(USA)

Columbia

December 2, 1990

Brand
Gardner
Hoffman
Lounge
Parker

This Spacelab mission performed astronomical experiments with the Astro 1 Spacelab.

Soyuz TM-11
(USSR)

Derbent

December 2, 1990

Afanasyev
Manarov
Akiyama

The first Soviet commercial passenger, Japanese newsman Akiyama spent 7 days with his fellow cosmonauts. Afanasyev and Manarov stayed at Mir as the eighth crew for 175 days.

STS-37
(USA)

Atlantis

April 5, 1991

Nagel
Cameron
Godwin
Ross
Apt

Deployed the Gamma Ray Observatory.

STS-39
(USA)

Discovery

April 28,1991

Coats
Hammond
Harbaugh
McMonagle
Bluford
Veach
Hieb

This unclassified Department of Defense Shuttle mission was devoted to military scientific experiments.

Soyuz TM-12
(USSR)

Ozon

May 18, 1991

Artsebarsky
Krikalev
Sharman

Sharman became the first British citizen to go into space on this Mir mission. Sharman spent 7 days in space while the others stayed on as the nine Mir crew.

STS-40
(USA)

Columbia

June 5, 1991

O'Connor
Gutierrez
Bagian
Jernigan
Seddon
Gaffney
Hughes-Fulford

This Spacelab mission studied life sciences.

STS-43
(USA)

Atlantis

August 2, 1991

Blaha
Baker
Lucid
Low
Adamson

This mission did experiments for the Freedom Space Station and extended-duration orbiter programs.

STS-48
(USA)

Discovery

September 12, 1991

Creighton
Reightler
Gemar
Buchli
Brown

This mission deployed the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS).

Soyuz TM-13
(USSR)

Donbass

October 2, 1991

Volkov
Aubakirov
Viehbock

Viehbock became the first Austrian and Aubakirov became the first Kazakh in space as they spent seven days aboard Mir.

STS-44
(USA)

Atlantis

November 24, 1991

Gregory
Henricks
Voss
Musgrave
Runco
Hennen

This unclassified Department of Defense shuttle mission deployed an early warning satellite.

STS-42
(USA)

Discovery

January 22, 1992

Grabe
Oswald
Thagard
Readdy
Hilmers
Bondar
Merbold

This mission had the first International Microgravity Lab.

Soyuz TM-14
(USSR)

Vityaz

March 17, 1992

Viktorenko
Kaleri
Flade

The 11th Mir crew spent the majority of its 145 days in space on Earth resource missions.

STS-45
(USA)

Atlantis

March 24, 1992

Bolden
Duffy
Sullivan
Leestma
Foale
Frimout
Lichtenberg

This mission had ATLAS and studied the Earth's atmosphere.

STS-49
(USA)

Endeavour

May 7, 1992

Brandenstein
Chilton
Hieb
Melnick
Thuot
Thornton
Akers

This first flight of Endeavour captured, repaired, and redeployed the Intelsat VI-3 satellite.

STS-50
(USA)

Columbia

June 25, 1992

Richards
Ken Bowersox
Dunbar
Baker
Meade
DeLucas
Trinh

This mission had the first U.S. Microgravity Lab.

Soyuz TM-15
(USSR)

Rodnik

July 27, 1992

Solovyov
Avdeyev
Tognini

The 12th Mir crew mounted the Sofora propulsion module on the Mir complex.

STS-46
(USA)

Atlantis

July 31, 1992

Shriver
Allen
Nicollier
Ivins
Hoffman
Chang-Diaz
Malerba

This international crew attempted to unreel the twelve-mile-long Italian Tethered Satellite. The TSS experiment had to be abandoned.

STS-47
(USA)

Endeavour

September 12, 1992

Gibson
Brown
Lee
Davis
Apt
Jemison
Mohri

This was the first Japanese Spacelab mission.

STS-52
(USA)

Columbia

October 22, 1992

Wetherbee
Baker
Veach
Shepherd
Jernigan
Maclean

This crew performed microgravity experiments.

STS-53
(USA)

Discovery

December 2, 1992

Walker
Cabana
Bluford
Ivins
Voss
Clifford

This was a Department of Defense mission.

STS-54
(USA)

Endeavour

January 13, 1993

Shriver
McMonagle
Runco
Harbaugh
Helms

The crew deployed a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite

STS-56
(USA)

Discovery

April 8, 1993

Cameron
Oswald
Foale
Cockrell
Ochoa

The crew deployed an ATLAS satellite.

STS-55
(USA)

Columbia

April 26, 1993

Nagel
Henricks
Ross
Precourt
Harris
Walter
Schlegel

This was a German Spacelab mission.

STS-57
(USA)

Endeavour

June 21, 1993

Grabe
Duffy
Low
Sherlock
Wisoff
Voss

The crew performed several experiments in manufacturing.

STS-51
(USA)

Atlantis

September 12, 1993

Culbertson
Readdy
Newman
Bursch
Walz

The crew deployed two satellites during this mission.

STS-58
(USA)

Columbia

October 18, 1993

Blaha
Searfoss
Seddon
McArthur
Wolf
Lucid
Fettman

The crew did experiments in the life sciences.

STS-61
(USA)

Endeavour

December 2, 1993

Covey
Bowersox
Musgrave
Thornton
Hoffman
Nicollier
Akers

The crew repaired the Hubble Space Telescope.

Source

Timeline of planetary exploration