Manfred von Richthofen
The "Red Baron"
2 May 1892 - 21 April 1918
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen was a German fighter
pilot known as "The Red Baron". He was the most successful
flying ace of World War I, and was credited with 80 confirmed
air combat victories.
Von Richthofen is also known as "le Diable Rouge" ("Red Devil")
or "Le Petit Rouge" ("Little Red") in French, and the "Red
Knight" or the "Red Baron" in the English. The German
translation of Red Baron is "der rote Baron", von Richthofen
also is so known in Germany, although rarely referred to as
"Baron" in his lifetime, but as Freiherr, the correct title for
his level of nobility. Von Richthofen's 1917 autobiography is
titled Der Rote Kampfflieger, the translation by J. Ellis Barker
was published in 1918 as The Red Battle Flyer. It has been noted
that due to the publishing date of the German original before
the end of WWI, the book is certainly influenced by propaganda
and censorship of the time. Von Richthofen died during the war,
and while he did not have the opportunity of publishing a
revised version, he was quoted as saying the book was "too
insolent" and that he was "no longer that kind of person".
Von Richthofen was born in Kleinburg, near Breslau, Silesia,
into a family of old Prussian nobility (see also below). When he
was 9 years old, he moved with his family to nearby Schweidnitz.
The young von Richthofen enjoyed riding horses and hunting.
After completing cadet training in 1911, he joined the Ulanen-Regiment
Kaiser Alexanders des III. von Russland (1. Westpreußisches), a
cavalry unit ("Uhlan Regiment Emperor Alexander III of Russia
1st Regiment, West Prussia").
When the First World War broke out, von Richthofen served as a
cavalry scout on both the eastern and western fronts. However,
when traditional cavalry operations became obsolete due to
machine guns and barbed wire, the Uhlans were used in ordinary
battlefield operations and for reinforcements. Due to his
disappointment with not being able to participate more often in
combat operations, von Richthofen applied for a transfer to the
Flying Service. After a while his query was granted and he
joined the flying service at the end of May 1915.
He was initially a reconnaissance observer over the Eastern
Front from June to August 1915, with the No. 69 Flying Squadron.
On being transferred to the Champagne front, he managed to shoot
down a French Farman aircraft with his observer's machine gun,
but was not credited with the kill, as it fell behind Allied
He then trained as a pilot in October, 1915. In March 1916, he
joined Kampfgeschwader 2 flying a two-seater Albatros B.II. Over
Verdun on 26 April 1916 he fired on a French Nieuport downing it
over Fort Douaumont, although once again he gained no official
credit. At this time he flew a Fokker Eindecker single-seat
After a further spell flying two seaters on the Eastern Front in
August 1916 he met fighter pilot Oswald Boelcke. Boelcke,
touring the East looking for candidates for his newly formed
fighter unit, selected Richthofen to join the new Jagdstaffel,
Jasta 2. Von Richthofen won his first aerial combat over Cambrai,
France, on September 17, 1916.
After his first victory, von Richthofen ordered a silver cup
engraved with the date of the fight and the type of enemy
machine from a jeweller friend in Berlin. He continued this
tradition until he had 60 cups, by which time the supply of
silver in blockaded Germany was restricted.
Rather than engage in risky tactics like his brother Lothar (40
air kills), Manfred von Richthofen strictly observed a set of
flight maxims (commonly referred to as the "Dicta Boelcke") to
assure the greatest success for both squadron and individual
On 23 November 1916 von Richthofen downed his most renowned
adversary, the British ace Major Lanoe Hawker VC, described by
von Richthofen himself as "the British Boelcke." The victory
came while von Richthofen was flying an Albatros D.II and Hawker
was flying a D.H.2. After this engagement, he was convinced he
needed a fighter aircraft with more agility, though this implied
a loss of speed. He switched to the Albatros D.III in January
1917, scoring two kills before suffering a crack in the spar of
the aircraft's lower wing. After this incident, von Richthofen
reverted to the Albatros D.II for the next five weeks. Von
Richthofen scored one kill in the D.III on 9 March, but the
D.III was temporarily grounded for the rest of the month, so von
Richthofen switched to the Halberstadt D.II, scoring six kills
in the Halberstadt between 11 March and 25 March, 1917.
Von Richthofen returned to the Albatros D.III on 2 April 1917.
He scored his next 22 kills in this type before switching to the
Albatros D.V in late June. From his return from convalescence in
October, von Richthofen was flying the celebrated Fokker Dr.I
triplane, the distinctive three-winged aircraft with which he is
most commonly associated, although he probably did not use the
type exclusively until after it was reissued with strengthened
wings in November.
Despite the popular link between von Richthofen and the Fokker
Dr. I, just 20 of his 80 kills were made in this now-famous
triplane. In fact, it was his Albatros D.III that was first
painted bright red and in which he first earned his name and
Von Richthofen championed the development of the Fokker D.VII
with suggestions to overcome the deficiencies of preceding
aircraft used by the German airforce. However, he never had an
opportunity to fly it in combat as he was killed just days
before it entered service.
The Flying Circus
In January 1917, after his 16th confirmed kill, von Richthofen
received the Pour le Mérite, the highest military honour in
Germany at the time. That same month, he assumed command of
Jasta 11, which ultimately included some of the elite of
Germany's pilots, many of whom he trained himself. Several in
turn subsequently became leaders of their own squadrons.
As a practical aid to easy identification in the melee of air
combat, Jasta 11's aircraft soon adopted red colourations with
various individual markings, with some of von Richthofen's own
planes painted entirely red. This practice soon had its use in
German propaganda, even the RFC aircrew dubbing von Richthofen
"Le Petit Rouge."
Von Richthofen led his new unit to unparalleled success, peaking
during "Bloody April" of 1917. In that month alone, he downed 22
British aircraft, raising his official tally to 52. By June, he
was the commander of the first of the new larger Jagdgeschwader
(wing) formations, leading Jagdgeschwader 1 composed of Jastas
4, 6, 10, and 11. These were highly mobile combined tactical
units that could be sent at short notice to different parts of
the front as required. In this way, JG1 became "The Flying
Circus" or "Richthofen's Circus", which got its name both from
the squadrons' brightly coloured aircraft and their use of large
colourful tents to house men and machines.
Incidentally, although he was now performing the duties of a
major or a lieutenant colonel, he remained a captain, in
deference to a German army tradition that a son should not hold
a higher rank than his father (Richthofen's father was a reserve
major in the German army).
On 6 July, during a combat with a formation of No. 20 Squadron's
F.E.2d two seat fighters, von Richthofen sustained a serious
head wound that forced him to land near Wervicq and grounded him
for several weeks. The air victory was credited to Captain
Donald Cunnell of the Royal Flying Corps, who himself was killed
a few days later. It was during his convalescence that Von
Richthofen (probably with the help of a "ghost" writer from a
German propaganda unit) wrote his "autobiography". Although the
Red Baron returned to combat in October 1917, this injury is
thought to have caused lasting damage, as he later often
suffered from post-flight nausea and headaches, as well as a
change in temperament. There is even a theory linking his injury
with his eventual death (see relevant section of this article).
Von Richthofen was a brilliant tactician, building on Boelcke's
tactics. But unlike Boelcke, he led by example and force of will
rather than by inspiration. He was often described as distant,
unemotional, and rather humorless, though some colleagues
In 1918, von Richthofen had become such a legend that it was
feared that his death would be a blow to the morale of the
German people. Von Richthofen himself refused to accept a ground
job after his wound, stating that if the average German soldier
had no choice in his duties, he would therefore continue to fly
in combat. Certainly he had become part of a cult of
hero-worship, assiduously encouraged by official propaganda.
German propaganda circulated various false rumours, including
that the British had raised squadrons specially to hunt down von
Richthofen, and were offering large rewards and an automatic
Victoria Cross to any Allied pilot who shot him down. Passages
from his correspondence indicate he may have at least half
believed some of these stories himself.
Von Richthofen was killed just after 11 a.m. on 21 April 1918,
while flying over Morlancourt Ridge, near the Somme River.
At the time the Baron had been pursuing (at very low altitude) a
Sopwith Camel piloted by a novice Canadian pilot, Lieutenant
Wilfrid "Wop" May of No. 209 Squadron, Royal Air Force. In turn,
the Baron was spotted and briefly attacked by a Camel piloted by
a school friend (and flight Commander) of May, Canadian Captain
Arthur "Roy" Brown, who had to dive steeply at very high speed
to intervene, and then had to climb steeply to avoid hitting the
ground. Richthofen turned to avoid this attack, and then resumed
his pursuit of May.
It was almost certainly during the last stage of this pursuit
that Richthofen was hit by a single .303 bullet that caused such
severe damage to his heart and lungs that it must have produced
a very speedy death. In the last seconds of his life, he managed
to make a hasty but controlled landing in a field on a hill near
the Bray-Corbie road, just north of the village of
Vaux-sur-Somme, in a sector controlled by the Australian
Imperial Force (AIF). His Fokker was not badly damaged by the
landing, but it was speedily demolished by souvenir hunters. One
witness, Gunner George Ridgway, stated that when he and other
Australian soldiers reached the plane, Richthofen was still
alive but died moments later. Another eye witness, Sgt Ted Smout
of the Australian Medical Corps, reported that Richthofen's last
word was "kaputt" ("broken") immediately before he died.
No. 3 Squadron of the Australian Flying Corps, the nearest
Allied air unit, assumed responsibility for von Richthofen's
remains, and performed a full British military funeral in his
Who fired the fatal shot?
The identity of the person who fired the fatal shot is unknown.
The Royal Air Force credited Brown with shooting down the Red
Baron. However Richthofen died following an extremely serious
and inevitably fatal chest wound from a single bullet. It seems
almost impossible that, if this was from Brown's guns,
Richthofen could have continued his pursuit of May for as long
as he did.
Most experts now believe that von Richthofen was killed by
someone on the ground. The wound through his body indicated that
it had been caused by a bullet moving in an upward motion, from
the right side, and more importantly, that it was probably
received some time after Brown's attack.
Many sources, including a 1998 article by Dr Geoffrey Miller — a
physician and historian of military medicine — and a US Public
Broadcasting Service documentary made in 2003, have suggested
that Sergeant Cedric Popkin was the person most likely to have
killed Richthofen. Popkin was an anti-aircraft (AA) machine
gunner with the Australian 24th Machine Gun Company, and was
using a Vickers gun. He fired at Richthofen's plane on two
occasions: first as the Baron was heading straight at his
position, and then at long range from the right. Popkin stated —
in a 1935 letter, which included a sketch map — to the
Australian official war historian, that he believed he had fired
the fatal shot as von Richthofen approached his position. Such a
shot would have been from directly in front of the plane and
could not have been the one that resulted in the Baron's death.
However, Popkin was well-placed to fire the fatal shot when von
Richthofen passed him for a second time on the right.
One source, a 2002 documentary produced by the Discovery Channel
suggests that Gunner W. J. "Snowy" Evans, a Lewis machine gunner
with the 53rd Battery, 14th Field Artillery Brigade, Royal
Australian Artillery is likely to have killed von Richthofen.
However, Dr Miller and the PBS documentary dismiss these
Other sources have suggested that Gunner Robert Buie (also of
the 53rd Battery) may have fired the fatal shot. There is now
little support for this theory. Nevertheless, in March 2007, the
municipality of Hornsby Shire, in Sydney, recognised Buie, a
former resident, as the man who shot down von Richthofen. Buie,
who died in 1964, has never been officially recognised in any
other way. The Shire placed a plaque near Buie's former home in
the suburb of Brooklyn.
Brain damage theory
In 1999, a German medical researcher, Dr Henning Allmers,
published an article in prestigious British medical journal The
Lancet, suggesting that it was likely brain damage from the head
wound suffered by Richthofen in June 1917 (see above) played a
part in the Baron's death. This theory was supported by a 2004
paper from researchers at the University of Texas. Richthofen's
behaviour after his injury was noted as consistent with
brain-injured patients, and such an injury may account for his
perceived lack of judgment on his final flight: flying too low
over enemy territory and suffering target fixation. For unknown
reasons, on his final flight, von Richthofen suddenly and
inexplicably strayed from several of the strict rules of aerial
combat that he himself had devised and obeyed throughout his
career. He may also have suffered from what is now recognised as
combat fatigue: a symptom of which is a recklessness and
disregard for personal safety, which may explain his final
flight at low level over enemy lines.
On the other hand, at the time of von Richthofen's death the
front was in a highly fluid state, following the initial success
of the German offensive of March-April 1918. It is very possible
that the Baron may have been mistaken about his position
relative to the front line, and underestimated the danger from
light anti-aircraft fire. He must also have been acutely aware
that the battle he was engaged in was part of Germany's last
real chance to win the war — in the face of Allied air
superiority, the German air service was having great difficulty
in acquiring vital reconnaissance information, such as the
positions of batteries. In this situation foolhardiness and
extreme bravery may be unusually hard to distinguish.
Perhaps more relevant is the suggestion in Franks and Bennett's
2007 book that on the day of von Richthofen's death, the
prevailing wind was about 25mph westerly on the day rather than
the usual 25mph easterly. This meant that von Richthofen,
heading generally westward, was travelling at 110mph ground
speed rather than the 85mph ground speed he would have been used
to. This is 50mph, or nearly 60%, faster than normal, and thus
he could easily have strayed over the lines without realising
it, especially since he was struggling with one jammed gun and
another that was only firing short bursts before needing
re-cocking. This is the reason Franks and Bennett suggest for
von Richthofen's apparent mistake in flying at low level over
enemy territory. Franks and Bennett provide details to show that
given von Richthofen's experience and background, he was very
clear of the risk from ground fire and was fully in accord with
his late mentor Boelcke's rules of air fighting, particularly
number 10: 'Foolish acts of bravery are fatal.'
Thus von Richthofen would not have underestimated the threat
from ground fire nor taken what he considered a reckless course
of action. This does of course not rule out impaired judgement
from brain damage, but a much faster ground speed than usual
coupled with gun trouble is a simpler explanation and is in
accord with known facts.
The commanding officer of No. 3 Squadron AFC, Major David Blake,
suggested initially that von Richthofen had been killed by the
crew of one of his squadron's R.E.8s, which had also fought von
Richthofen's unit that afternoon. However this was quickly
disproved, and following an autopsy that he witnessed, Blake
became a strong proponent of the view that an AA machine gunner
had killed Richthofen.
In common with most Allied air officers, Blake regarded Manfred
von Richthofen with great respect, and he organised a full
military funeral. Von Richthofen was buried in the cemetery at
the village of Bertangles near Amiens on 22 April 1918. Six
airmen with the rank of captain — the same rank as von
Richthofen — served as pallbearers, and a guard of honour from
the squadron's other ranks fired a salute. Other Allied
squadrons presented memorial wreaths.
Von Richthofen's aircraft was dismembered by souvenir hunters.
Its engine was donated to the Imperial War Museum in London,
where it is still on display.
In 1925, Manfred von Richthofen's youngest brother, Bolko,
recovered the body and took it home. The family's first
intention was to lay Manfred's coffin down at the Schweidnitz
cemetery, beside the graves of his father (died in 1920) and his
brother, who had been killed in a post-war air crash in 1922.
But German authorities expressed a wish that the final place of
rest for the body to be interred at the Invalidenfriedhof
Cemetery in Berlin, where many German military heroes and
leaders were buried. The family agreed. In 1975 his body was
exhumed and buried in his family’s tomb at the Südfriedhof in
Number of kills
For decades after World War I, some authors questioned whether
von Richthofen achieved 80 victories, insisting that his record
was exaggerated for propaganda purposes. Some claimed that he
took credit for planes downed by his squadron or wing. However,
in the 1990s, resurgence in Great War scholarship resulted in
detailed investigation of many facets of air combat. A study
conducted by British historian Norman Franks with two
colleagues, published in Under the Guns of the Red Baron in
1998, concluded that at least 73 of von Richthofen's claimed
victories were accurate, with documented identities of the
Allied airmen whom von Richthofen had fought and defeated. There
were also unconfirmed victories that could put his actual total
as high as 100. The highest scoring allied ace was Frenchman
René Fonck, with 75 victories and the highest scoring British
imperial airman was Canadian Billy Bishop with 72 kills.
It is also significant that while von Richthofen's early
victories and the establishment of his reputation coincided with
a period of German air superiority the majority of his successes
were achieved against a numerically superior enemy, flying
fighter aircraft that were on the whole better than his own.
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This web page was last updated on:
15 December, 2008